The method of case study has been used in education not for a long time, but it is rapidly gaining popularity and demonstrating high efficiency. The main difference between this method and traditional teaching methods lies in the fact that the case does not have an unambiguously correct solution. Each student can offer the most optimal, in his opinion, way out of the proposed situation. In the case study method, the emphasis is not on the result, but on finding solutions and discussing them. Definition and history of case study method The word Case comes from the Latin casus – a problem or situation that requires a solution. The solution of the case can not be found in the textbooks, it should be searched only in the head of a student. The theory and practice go side by side, but at the same time stand on different banks. Even if you take all the textbooks of the world, they do not contain descriptions of situations that occur in real life. In 1924, professors of Harvard University decided that it was simply impossible to prepare specialists in modern specialties using the available textbooks. Then the university organized seminars, where entrepreneurs and businessmen told students about the real problems that their companies faced. The students had to offer their own solution, which everyone chose individually. This method of learning quickly brought results. Thanks to the cases, the graduates got practical experience in the university and were well prepared for solving non-standard problems. Goals and characteristics of case study method What goals does the consideration of case situations in the educational process help to achieve? Development of intellectual abilities; ability to defend personal position reasonably; resistance to stress; development of communication skills and ability to work in a team. Cases exist in almost all spheres of knowledge. After all, problem situations arise and can be modeled in each profession: medicine, jurisprudence, pedagogy, psychology, business analytics. Case Studies in modern business, example Case studies are actively used not only in training, but also in business. To attract new customers, the company can write a case based on a specific situation. Example: the company is engaged in the demolition of buildings. In the case posted on the site, the task of demolishing an old power plant in the city of Detroit is being considered. A potential customer, having familiarized himself with the case, immediately sees how the work is going on, what equipment is used, how real practical tasks are being solved. In other words, this is a visual demonstration of the service in action. Thus, the case is a powerful means of promoting services and products. Another popular use of case studies is to use them in interviews. Instead of studying resumes, applicants are asked to pass case interviews and offer solutions to several situations, after which it immediately becomes clear whether the candidate is suitable for the position. How to write a solution to the case Many people ask themselves: how to properly design a case? The case is a non-standard task, therefore there are no strict rules of its registration. In other words, the design of the case is not such a serious task as the design of a course work or a diploma paper. However, it is still necessary to follow the general recommendations. Below is an approximate plan for writing a case study. At once we will tell, that depending on a kind of the task this plan can and should vary. What should the case contain: Title. It is important that the title reflects the essence of the case and gives an early indication of the situation, which will be considered next. Description of the given situation. To make the information easier, the situation can be divided into points. Finding solutions. Detailed description, analysis of ways of solving the case and choosing the best option for getting out of the situation. Here you need to consider all possible options with an indication of the expected consequences. Description of the result. This paragraph describes the result of actions to solve the problem.
Case studies were first used in training at Harvard (USA), and since then, Harvard has largely shaped the format of case studies worldwide. Training at Harvard Business School (Harvard Business School, HBS) is almost entirely built on the analysis of cases, and the school library collected the largest collection of cases in the world. A classic Harvard case is a large case (20-25 pages of text plus 8-10 pages of illustrations and applications), where there is a main character and his story. The peculiarity of the application of the case-method in HBS is the search for the only correct solution. In the School of Management. John F. Kennedy School of Government (HKS) cases are used for training civil servants, and their topics are related to issues of public policy and leadership. The protagonist of the case, as a rule, is in the public service or is an official person of a non-profit organization. HKS cases may cover topics such as the “Renaissance of Rwanda after the Genocide”, “Hurricane Katrina”, etc. Discussion of cases in HKS is more scientific and conceptual in nature, while in business schools, the case method is a solution to some specific problems with developing an action plan. In medical education, an example of using the case-study method is provided by training at the Harvard Medical School. Traditionally, future doctors were allowed to work with patients from the third year, and the first two years they were given only theoretical education with a huge amount of material for memorization. Students studied biology, physiology, anatomy, biochemistry and other disciplines. In 1985, the dean of the school, Daniel Tosteson (Daniel Tosteson) offered to use cases to reduce the information load on students and introduce elements of active learning into the program. Work with medical cases differed from the decision of business cases in its format. Some business schools created online essay writer services to help students cope with that. Students worked in small groups, for 6-8 people, and received the material directly in the class, and did not get acquainted with it in advance. The case consisted of 5-6 parts, which were consistently dealt with in several classes. As a rule, the first part described the patient’s initial condition and symptoms, the second contained the results of the initial examination, the following parts were devoted to the results of the tests, the diagnosis of the specialists assigned to treatment, the patient’s response to this treatment, and further progress of treatment. During the discussion, students were not required to offer ready-made solutions. The goal was to raise further questions, put forward hypotheses, identify gaps in knowledge, and eventually create a plan for self-study of materials on the topic with which students were sent to the library for several days. After that the teacher offered for discussion the following part of the case. Thus, with the introduction of cases in training, students already at the initial courses plunged into the world of medical practice instead of purely theoretical training. In the European tradition of business education, a slightly different format of education was initially established. The first MBA programs in France, Switzerland, the UK and other countries lasted an average of 12 months (instead of two-year programs, as was the case in the US) and were designed for students who already had practical experience in business management. This pragmatic orientation and proximity to the world of real business has found its most complete expression in the Manchester Business School (MBS) and, accordingly, the so-called Manchester School case study. In contrast to the Harvard cases, the Manchester cases are one and a half to two times shorter and they lack the right solution, which is developed in the course of open discussions. In addition, the Manchester School of Business is trying to bring its cases even closer to reality: it practices short-term internships for students (project teaching method), where they are faced with the task of coping with the specific difficulties that the company is currently experiencing. Due to the practice, training in MBS lasts a little more – 18 months. On average, the lecture accounts for 30% of the entire study time, the decision of cases takes 25%, and participation in working projects – 45%.
The case study has received the most successful reviews in the business theme and all that is connected with it, so now the word case study stands with success a word. They allow consumers to understand about nanotechnology and if the situation allows to advance several steps forward to solve certain problems. In other words, the product or service is demonstrated “in action”. Thus, the case “pushes” the potential client to make a similar decision in this situation. The marketing case is profitable both for the technology company and for the company that has used this technology to solve its business problems. For a technology developer, the case is advantageous in that: – provides journalists with materials for writing an article about the company’s product; – tells potential customers about using the product to solve specific problems; – can provoke interest in unpopular products and services; – positions the company as a trustworthy partner with experience and knowledge. Where can I use the case? 1. The case can be used to prepare a press release and then send it to the media 2. The case can be published on its own site in the section “Press kit” or “Success stories” 3. The case can be used as illustrative material at conferences and presentations Length, format and appearance of the case Most marketing cases are written on one or two pages, which is about 500-600 words. Naturally, you can write more, but it will already look like aggressive advertising. But the study of cases implies a subtle, unobtrusive approach. The format of the case allows the author to experiment boldly and try something new. Write a success story so that it is read. Take care of your readers’ vision. Use the easy-to-read font. The best is Arial, 12-14 points. Be careful with the color scheme. Wanting to make the case brighter and more expressive, you will do yourself a disservice – blue letters on a yellow background will be remembered for a long time, but hardly like them. However much it would be desirable, it is difficult to come up with something better than the classic “black and white.” So, the structure of the case, the most difficult in this process and here many experts advise you to seek help in special online essays writing services where the essay writerss will help you in this. Most cases have this structure: The situation is a kind of “hint”, an introductory block, which explains the reason, which was the reason for preparing a marketing case. Here we briefly describe the client company, its field of activity, its market position, its size, and other details. Also, in this part you can explain why the customer chose you for the solution of his problem: the uniqueness of your product, the use of similar technology in the past, your rewards, recognition in the market. The problem is a story tie. Here is talked about the problem the customer encountered. This can be anything: from low productivity in the company due to poor automation of processes to the loss of data due to the deterioration of the hard drive on the home PC. The solution is the main part of the case. This describes the product that was used to solve the problem and provides the results. Key points are supported by figures, tables and graphs. Evaluation is the final part of the marketing case, which sums up all that has been said and evaluates the result that was achieved with the help of your product. For greater persuasiveness, it is important to mention the financial side of the matter. Tell us how your product has paid for itself. For example, he increased the productivity of the client company by 50% in 2 months. Explain how to achieve such results. In this case, do not be too zealous with exaggerations. Remember: no one has invented a tool to solve all problems, which means that the text, where the product is described as a universal solution, will be considered unreliable and will not be read to the end.
In this article, you can learn how to earn money by writing articles and essays. Also what kinds of texts exist for which money is paid. Get tips on earning for novice copywriters. In our time, most people simply cannot imagine their lives without the Internet. Almost all users of the network read news, various blogs, articles, learning from them a lot of information. However, not many people think about how this information appears on various sites, whether they are just information or scientific. Who writes articles and provides you with information? Of course, there are online essay writer services, with good writers, but there are also private writers. Let’s look at this in more detail. Basic principles of work as a copywriter Those people who are engaged in writing articles for money in the network are called copywriters. The principle of the copywriter (artist or author). The contractor finds the customer who provides his work, takes the order and performs it according to the client’s requirements. Standard requirements are literacy, the amount of text (number of characters), uniqueness. But it is necessary to take into account the fact that each customer has his own wishes for the work. Someone is very important only uniqueness, and someone puts out more stringent requirements. Many customers provide keys or links to various resources that need to be correctly written into the article. After the essay is written, it must be checked for errors and uniqueness. If suddenly something does not meet the requirements of the client, the text needs to be finalized. After completion, the text is sent to the customer and, if everything suits him, he accepts the order, and remits money for the work to the performer. After the sale, the copywriter loses all ownership rights to the article and cannot sell it again. There are several types of text for which you will be paid money Copywriting is an author’s article written on any topic. That is, a person writes an article, which he himself came up with. Such texts as copywriting are the most highly paid, and the most high-quality kind of content, that is, they are not found anywhere else. Rewriting – rewriting an existing article in your own words. Such texts are less valuable than copywriting. But demand is great because it’s easier to write for an artist and in turn cheaper for a buyer. Translation of articles from foreign languages. Well, here I think everyone understands that a certain text is translated from a foreign language and is brought to the semantic correspondence of the article. This species is in great demand. SEO-copywriting – this is the same copywriting, rewriting only the written article should be optimized for a certain key query. Not less popular type of earnings for copywriters. Tips for novice for copywriters First, you need to register at one of the copywriting exchanges. When choosing tasks, do not stop at those that are offered to beginners to raise the rating and loyal requirements. Since such customers significantly underestimate the price. Also, do not take jobs on a topic in which you have nothing to understand. It is much easier to work on a topic close to you. You do not have to take a lot of orders at once, you can be late to turn in the work on time. If there are any misunderstandings on the assignment, it is better to clarify them with the customer, since then the work may not be accepted, and you have to redo everything. Such work as copywriting requires constant improvement if you want to become a successful essay writer and not buy an online essay, but write them yourself. Be sure to study the books of successful authors. This will significantly improve the quality of your texts, and accordingly increase earnings.
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